have you ever heard
of a language whose
entire grammar fits
on a single sheet of paper?
Lesson 1 ª.
Alphabet & Pronunciation
Every letter is pronounced in every word, and everything is written exactly as it is pronounced. Esperanto does not use the letters Q, W, X and Y. We do, however, have 6 other letters – Ĉ, Ĝ, Ĥ, Ĵ, Ŝ and Ŭ – and some of the usual letters are pronounced differently:
A, B, C (‘ts’), Ĉ (‘ch’), D, E, F, G (as ‘g’ in ‘gag’), Ĝ (as ‘g’ in ‘genie’), H, Ĥ (as the ‘ch’ in ‘loch’), I (as ‘ee” in “bee’), J (short ‘i’, as ‘y’ in ‘yes’), Ĵ (as ‘s’ in ‘measure’), K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, Ŝ (‘sh’), T, U (‘oo’), Ŭ (short ‘u’, as ‘w’ in ‘woman’), V, Z. In Esperanto, the emphasis is always on the second-last syllable of the word.
No exceptions in Esperanto:
Every noun ends is ‘o’ – parolo = speech.
Every adjective ends in ‘a’ – parola = oral.
Adverbs end in ‘e’ – parole = verbally.
Plural is made with a ‘j’ – paroloj = speeches.
Infinitive verbs with ‘i’ – paroli = to speak.
There is only one definite article, ‘la’:
la parolo = the speech, la paroloj = the speeches,
There is no indefinite article (no ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘some’):
parolo = a speech, paroloj = some speeches.
Lesson 2 ª.
mi (I), vi [or ci, seldom used] (you), li (he), ŝi (she), ĝi (it), oni (English ‘one’), ni (we), vi (you), ili (they), si (‘self’, used as the reflexive pronoun).
By appending ‘a’ to the personal pronouns, we get the possessive adjectives: mia, via, ilia... = my|mine, your|yours, their|theirs...
Conjugation & Basic Verb Tenses
The same verb ending is used for all persons, in every tense – no irregular verbs:
+i - infinitive. Paroli = ‘to speak’.
+as – present. Mi parolas = I speak.
+is –past. Ni parolis = We spoke.
+os - future. Oni parolos = One will speak.
+us – conditional. Li parolus = He would speak.
+u - imperative. (Vi) Parolu! = Speak! [You shall speak!]
Lesson 3 ª.
Cardinal: nul (0), unu (1), du (2), tri (3), kvar (4), kvin (5), ses (6), sep (7), ok (8), naŭ (9), dek (10), cent (100), mil (1000), miliono (million).
Examples: dek du (12), dudek unu (21), ducent (200), mil naŭcent sesdek ok (1968).
Ordinal = +a. Unua, dua = first, second...
Adverb = +e. Unue, due= firstly, secondly...
Noun = +o. Dekduo, dekoj = a dozen, tens.
Multiple = +obl+a. Duobla, triobla = double, triple.
Fraction = +on+o. Duono, kvarono = half, quarter.
Group = +op+o. Duopo, triopo = duo, trio.
Lesson 4 ª.
To make yes|no questions, we put ‘ĉu’ at the beginning of a sentence:
Ĉu li manĝas? = Is he eating?
Jes, li manĝas = Yes, he’s eating.
Ne, li trinkas. = No, he’s drinking.
To make a negative sentence, we just need to insert the word ‘ne’ right before the word that it negates.
Mi ne kantas = I am not singing.
Ne mi kantas = it is not me singing.
In order to indicate that a noun is the object of a verb, we append ‘n’ to the noun - and also to its adjectives, which is unlike English.
The ‘n’ ending is also used with adverbs of place, to indicate ‘change of place’, and it can also be used when a preposition is omitted.
Examples of usage:
Mi trinkas akvon (akv-o-n) = I drink water.
Mi amas vin (vi-n) = I love you.
Mi iras Parizon (Pariz-o-n) = I’m going to Paris.
Mi venos lundon (lund-o-n) = I’ll come on Monday.
Lesson 5 ª.
45 quite logical words.
for some reason
for this reason
for every reason
for no reason
Lesson 6 ª.
Placed between the root and the end of the word.
• names of living beings:
+ul (person): juna = young, junulo = a youth
+an (member): urbo = city, urbano = a citizen
+ist (profession): pano = bread, panisto = baker
+in (feminine): patro = father, patrino = mother
+id (offspring): koko = rooster, kokido = chick
+estr (chief): urbo = city, urbestro = mayor